Păstrați Internetul Deschis ! Keep the Internet Open !

de VINTON CERF

24 MAI 2012

Vinton Cerf  este recunoscut ca fiind unul din „Părinții  Internetului,”  titlu pe care îl împarte cu omul de știiță american Bob Kahn. În prezent lucrează pentru Google, pe post de „Evanghelist șef Al Internetului”. După încercările ACTA, SOPA, PIPA, CISPA, etc o nouă amenințare- de data aceasta foarte serioasă, pune Internetul- și pe susținătorii lui, în defensivă.

 

 

Păstrați internetul deschis

Internetul se află la o răscruce de drumuri. Construit de jos în sus, alimentat de oameni, a devenit un motor economic puternic și o forță socială pozitivă. Dar succesul său a generat o reacție îngrijorătoare. În întreaga lume, regimurile represive pun în aplicare sau propun măsuri care restricționează libera exprimare și afectează drepturile fundamentale. Numărul de guverne care cenzurează conținutul de pe Internet a crescut astăzi la 40, de la aproximativ patru în 2002. Și acest număr este în continuă creștere, amenințând că va lua Internetul așa cum am știut-o eu și voi.

Unii dintre acești pași sunt ca reacție la diferitele daune care pot fi și se propagă prin rețea. Ca aproape orice infrastructură majoră, internetul poate fi abuzat și utilizatorii săi pot fi răniți. Cu toate acestea, trebuie să avem mare grijă ca vindecarea acestor boli să nu facă mai mult rău decât bine. Beneficiile internetului deschis și accesibil sunt aproape incalculabile, iar pierderea lor ar produce pagube sociale și economice semnificative.

În acest context, se deschide un nou front în bătălia pentru Internet la Uniunea Internațională a Telecomunicațiilor, o organizație a Organizației Națiunilor Unite care numără 193 de țări ca membri. Realizează o revizuire a acordurilor internaționale care reglementează telecomunicațiile și își propune să își extindă autoritatea de reglementare la Internet la un summit programat în decembrie la Dubai.

O astfel de mișcare deține potențial profund ?? și cred că potențial periculos? implicații pentru viitorul internetului și al tuturor utilizatorilor săi.

În prezent, ITU se concentrează pe rețelele de telecomunicații și pe alocările de frecvențe radio, mai degrabă decât pe Internet în sine. Unii membri își propun să extindă domeniul de aplicare al tratatului agenției pentru a include reglementarea internetului. Fiecare dintre cei 193 de membri primește un vot, indiferent de evidența sa privind drepturile fundamentale â ?? iar o majoritate simplă este suficientă pentru a efectua schimbarea. Negocierile se desfășoară în mare parte în rândul guvernelor, cu acces foarte limitat pentru societatea civilă sau pentru alți observatori.

Când am ajutat la dezvoltarea standardelor deschise pe care computerele le folosesc pentru a comunica între ele pe net, am sperat, dar nu am putut prezice cum va înflori și cât de multă ingeniozitate umană va dezlănțui. Ce sos secret și-a alimentat succesul? Netul a prosperat tocmai pentru că guvernele â ?? în cea mai mare parte â ?? a permis internetului să crească organic, cu societatea civilă, mediul academic, sectorul privat și organismele de standarde voluntare care colaborează la dezvoltare, funcționare și guvernare.

În schimb, UIT creează bariere semnificative în calea participării societății civile. O agenție specializată a Organizației Națiunilor Unite, a apărut din Uniunea Telegrafică Internațională, care a fost înființată în 1865. Tratatul care guvernează agenția, modificat ultima dată în 1988, a stabilit practici care au lăsat internetul în mare parte neafectat.

În timp ce multe guverne s-au angajat să mențină regimuri flexibile pentru tehnologiile de internet în mișcare rapidă, unele altele au fost destul de explicite cu privire la dorința lor de a pune un singur ONU sau alt organism interguvernamental în controlul rețelei.

În iunie anul trecut, prim-ministrul de atunci Vladimir Putin a declarat obiectivul Rusiei și aliaților săi ca „stabilirea controlului internațional pe internet” ??? prin UIT Și în septembrie 2011, China, Rusia, Tadjikistan și Uzbekistan au depus o propunere pentru un „Cod internațional de conduită pentru securitatea informațiilor” ??? la Adunarea Generală a ONU, cu scopul de a stabili conduse de guvern „norme și reguli internaționale care standardizează comportamentul țărilor în ceea ce privește informațiile și spațiul cibernetic”.

Au apărut cuvintele altor câteva propuneri din interiorul UIT. Mai multe regimuri autoritare ar interzice anonimatul de pe web, ceea ce ar face mai ușor găsirea și arestarea disidenților. Alții au sugerat mutarea sistemului ONU care gestionează numele de domenii și adresele de internet către Națiunile Unite.

Astfel de propuneri ridică perspectiva unor politici care permit controalele guvernamentale, dar diminuează considerabil „inovația fără permisiuni”  care stă la baza unei creșteri economice extraordinare bazate pe internet pentru a nu spune nimic despre călcarea drepturilor omului.

Unele țări și-au exprimat simpatia pentru aceste propuneri. Sunt îngrijorați de rolul supradimensionat pe care îl percep Statele Unite în direcția și dezvoltarea politicii de internet. Unii cred că statu quo-ul favorizează interesele companiilor mari de internet globale. Alții consideră că ITU poate ajuta la accelerarea accesului la Internet în lumea în curs de dezvoltare.

Deciziile luate la Dubai în decembrie au potențialul de a pune cătușe guvernamentale pe net. Pentru a preveni asta ?? și păstrați internetul deschis și gratuit pentru generațiile următoare â ?? trebuie să prevenim o schimbare fundamentală a modului în care este guvernat Internetul.

Vă încurajez să luați măsuri acum: insistați ca dezbaterea despre guvernanța internetului să fie transparentă și deschisă tuturor părților interesate.

Keep the Internet Open

The Internet stands at a crossroads. Built from the bottom up, powered by the people, it has become a powerful economic engine and a positive social force. But its success has generated a worrying backlash. Around the world, repressive regimes are putting in place or proposing measures that restrict free expression and affect fundamental rights. The number of governments that censor Internet content has grown to 40 today from about four in 2002. And this number is still growing, threatening to take away the Internet as you and I have known it.

Some of these steps are in reaction to the various harms that can be and are being propagated through the network. Like almost every major infrastructure, the Internet can be abused and its users harmed. We must, however, take great care that the cure for these ills does not do more harm than good. The benefits of the open and accessible Internet are nearly incalculable and their loss would wreak significant social and economic damage.

Against this background, a new front in the battle for the Internet is opening at the International Telecommunications Union, a United Nations organization that counts 193 countries as its members. It is conducting a review of the international agreements governing telecommunications and aims to expand its regulatory authority to the Internet at a summit scheduled for December in Dubai.

Such a move holds potentially profound  and I believe potentially hazardous â?? implications for the future of the Internet and all of its users.

At present, the I.T.U. focuses on telecommunication networks and on radio frequency allocations rather than the Internet per se. Some members are aiming to expand the agency s treaty scope to include Internet regulation. Each of the 193 members gets a vote, no matter its record on fundamental rights and a simple majority suffices to effect change. Negotiations are held largely among governments, with very limited access for civil society or other observers.

When I helped to develop the open standards that computers use to communicate with one another across the Net, I hoped for but could not predict how it would blossom and how much human ingenuity it would unleash. What secret sauce powered its success? The Net prospered precisely because governments  for the most part âallowed the Internet to grow organically, with civil society, academia, private sector and voluntary standards bodies collaborating on development, operation and governance.

In contrast, the I.T.U. creates significant barriers to civil society participation. A specialized agency of the United Nations, it grew out of the International Telegraph Union, which was established in 1865. The treaty governing the agency, last amended in 1988, established practices that left the Internet largely unaffected.

While many governments are committed to maintaining flexible regimes for fast-moving Internet technologies, some others have been quite explicit about their desire to put a single U.N. or other intergovernmental body in control of the Net.

Last June, then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin stated the goal of Russia and its allies as establishing international control over the Internet through the I.T.U. And in September 2011, China, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan submitted a proposal for an âInternational Code of Conduct for Information Security to the U.N. General Assembly, with the goal of establishing government-led international norms and rules standardizing the behavior of countries concerning information and cyberspace.

Word of a few other proposals from inside the I.T.U. have surfaced. Several authoritarian regimes reportedly would ban anonymity from the Web, which would make it easier to find and arrest dissidents. Others have suggested moving the privately run system that manages domain names and Internet addresses to the United Nations.

Such proposals raise the prospect of policies that enable government controls but greatly diminish the permissionless innovation� that underlies extraordinary Internet-based economic growth to say nothing of trampling human rights.

Some countries have expressed sympathy for these proposals. They are concerned about the outsized role they perceive that the United States plays in the direction and development of Internet policy. Some believe the status quo favors the interests of large, global Internet companies. Others believe the I.T.U. can help speed Internet access in the developing world.

The decisions taken in Dubai in December have the potential to put government handcuffs on the Net. To prevent that â?? and keep the Internet open and free for the next generations we need to prevent a fundamental shift in how the Internet is governed.

I encourage you to take action now: Insist that the debate about Internet governance be transparent and open to all stakeholders.

 

 

  • Deadline approaches for Russia and China-led U.N. Internet takeover (raptureimminent.wordpress.com)
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